[119], Soviet Union also supported Daoud Khan militancy against Pakistan. [218] The Soviet army indiscriminately killed combatants and non-combatants to ensure submission by the local populations. "Use of toxins and other lethal agents in Southeast Asia and Afghanistan", "Afghanistan: Human Cost of Armed Conflict since the Soviet Invasion", "Reversing the gun sights: transnational civil society targets land mines", "Gorbachev, the Iraqi War & Afghan Atrocities", "Children of war: The real casualties of the Afghan conflict", "Collateral damage and the uncertainty of Afghanistan...", "USSR aid to Afghanistan worth $8 billion", "Pakistan: UN cautions on Afghan refugee camp closures", "No more visa extensions for foreigners in Pakistan", "Afghan refugee teaches Hindi to tots in India", "Afghan refugees in India become Indian, at last", "After Jalalabad's Defense, Kabul Grows Confident", "Explained: Why a top Afghan official visited the grave of ex-President Najibullah", "Tough Battle Takes Toll on Afghans. [178] Their efforts were also sometimes counterproductive as in the March 1989 battle for Jalalabad. [116], In 1979, Taraki attended a conference of the Non-Aligned Movement in Havana, Cuba. According to scholars Rafael Reuveny and Aseem Prakash, the war contributed to the fall of the Soviet Union by undermining the image of the Red Army as invincible, undermining Soviet legitimacy, and by creating new forms of political participation. [168], Pakistan's North-West Frontier Province became a base for the Afghan resistance fighters and the Deobandi ulama of that province played a significant role in the Afghan 'jihad', with Madrasa Haqqaniyya becoming a prominent organisational and networking base for the anti-Soviet Afghan fighters. The invasion was also made easier by the existence of a cooperation treaty between the two nations which allowed the Soviet Union to move its troops into the region if Afghanistan … [83] It has left a mixed legacy in the former Soviet Union and in Afghanistan. Meanwhile, telecommunications links to areas outside of Kabul were severed, isolating the capital. [337] Along with the Afghan and Soviet governments, China also publicly said that it supports the creation "broad-based" government, and Iran also supporting a negotiated peaceful solution - both China and Iran being guerilla-backing countries. [256] Cyclone nevertheless was one of the CIA's longest and most expensive covert operations. The latter, however, is still disputed with Amin repeatedly demonstrating friendliness toward the various delegates of the Soviet Union who would arrive in Afghanistan. Afghan resistance fighters returning to a village destroyed by Soviet forces, 1986. Following his resignation, crisis between Pakistan and Afghanistan was resolved and Pakistan re-opened the trade routes. The main reason that the Afghan soldiers were so ineffective, though, was their lack of morale, as many of them were not truly loyal to the communist government but simply collecting a paycheck. [203] The Soviets also pulled many of their troops out of Mongolia in 1987, where they were also having a far easier time than in Afghanistan, and restrained the Vietnamese invasion of Kampuchea to the point of an all out withdrawal in 1988. But for nearly three years, while Najibullah's government successfully defended itself against mujahideen attacks, factions within the government had also developed connections with its opponents. [329][330] In 2012 Pakistan banned extensions of visas to foreigners. After his visit he was able to leverage his position on the House Committee on Appropriations to encourage other Democratic congressmen to vote for CIA Afghan war money. (2005-01-14)", "Terror 'blowback' burns CIA (November 1, 1998)", "Western Fighters Answer Mideast Extremists' Clarion Call", The Path to Victory and Chaos: 1979–92 – Library of Congress country studies, "Dan Rather: more Soviet killing looms in Afghanistan", "Cameraman, CBS Deny Afghanistan Scenes Were Faked", "A history of failed press coverage of Afghanistan", "Radical writer Alexander Cockburn dead at 71", "The campaign for the caves: the battles for Zhawar in the Soviet-Afghan War", "Charlie Wilson's War Was Really America's War", "Breaking contact without leaving chaos: the Soviet withdrawal from Afghanistan", "Pakistan's F-16s Battled Soviet Jets—and Shot Down the Future Vice President of Russia", "Genocide and the Soviet Occupation of Afghanistan", "4 Soviet Deserters Tell of Cruel Afghanistan War", "The war against the Soviets in Afghanistan was run by Zia, not by us", "The real Charlie Wilson: 'War' got it right", "Afghans Down a Pakistani F-16, Saying Fighter Jet Crossed Border", "Amnesty International – Library – Afghanistan: Refugees from Afghanistan: The world's largest single refugee group", "ANATOMY OF A VICTORY: CIA'S COVERT AFGHAN WAR", "Reflections on Soviet Intervention in Afghanistan", "U.S. Increases Fund To Outbid Terrorists For Afghan Missiles", "The Stinger missile and U.S. intervention in Afghanistan", "Declassified files reveal Britain's secret support to Afghan Mujahideen", "UK discussed plans to help mujaheddin weeks after Soviet invasion of Afghanistan". In addition, an indeterminate number of Muslim volunteers—popularly termed “Afghan-Arabs,” regardless of their ethnicity—traveled from all parts of the world to join the opposition. [350] ), The man instrumental not only in generating international support but also in inspiring these volunteers to travel to Afghanistan for the jihad was a Palestinian Muslim Brotherhood cleric, Abdullah Azzam. Once it became apparent that the Soviets would have to get their hands dirty, they followed three main strategies aimed at quelling the uprising. In the last phase, Soviet troops prepared and executed their withdrawal from Afghanistan, whilst limiting the launching of offensive operations by those who hadn't withdrawn yet. [228] As for Pakistan, the Soviet war with Islamist mujahideen was viewed as retaliation for the Soviet Union's long unconditional support of regional rival, India, notably during the 1965 and the 1971 wars, which led to the loss of East Pakistan. Communist lawmaker Nikolay Kharitonov hailed the decision as a victory for "historical truth". The Parcham Government claimed that 11,000 were executed during the Amin/Taraki period in response to the revolts. [123] According to Baber, Bhutto's operation was an excellent idea and it had hard-hitting impact on Daoud and his government which forced Daoud to increase his desire to make peace with Bhutto. These forces mostly fought in the open, and Soviet airpower and artillery made short work of them.[155]. However, these statistics are based on Mujahedin self-reporting, which is of unknown reliability. [242], The CIA gave the majority of their weapons and finances to Gulbuddin Hekmatyar's Hezb-i-Islami who also received the lion's share of aid from the Saudis. In April 1978 Afghanistan’s centrist government, headed by Pres. Many Western military analysts credit the Stinger with a kill ratio of about 70% and with responsibility for most of the over 350 Soviet or Afghan government aircraft and helicopters downed in the last two years of the war. [202] At the same time, Gorbachev pressured his Cuban allies in Angola to scale down activities and withdraw even though Soviet allies were faring somewhat better there. The Soviet Union intervened in support of the Afghan communist government in its conflict with anti-communist Muslim guerrillas during the Afghan War (1978–92) and remained in Afghanistan until mid-February 1989. [126] Other members of the traditional elite, the religious establishment and intelligentsia fled the country. [275] MI6 also helped to retrieve crashed Soviet helicopters from Afghanistan - parts of which were carried on mules. The agreement on withdrawal held, and on February 15, 1989, the last Soviet troops departed on schedule from Afghanistan. Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev in 1989 proposed a peace plan in cooperation with leader of Afghanistan, Mohammad Najibullah, for the joint cutoff of Soviet and American aid to the government and guerillas respectively, to result in a ceasefire and peace negotiations. History. Veterans of the war are often referred to as афганцы (Afgantsy) in Russian. With the first years of the Clinton Administration in Washington, DC, all aid ceased. The communist flag is lowered for the last time over the Kremlin as Soviet president Mikhail Gorbachev resigns and hands power to Boris Yeltsin, the first leader of the newly formed democratic Russian state. Eastern European troops did not take part in the invasion or occupation of Afghanistan. Some sources show that PAF had shot down at least a dozen more aircraft during the war. [275][280], The UK 's role in the conflict entailed direct military involvement not only in Afghanistan, but the Central Asian republics of the Soviet Union. [56], Weapons supplies were made available through numerous countries. The international community imposed numerous sanctions and embargoes against the Soviet Union, and the U.S. led a boycott of the 1980 Summer Olympics held in Moscow. During the coup against Zahir Shah, Parcham had supported Daoud Khan. [292], In early 1987 a CIA report estimated that, from 1979 to 1986, the Soviet military spent 18 billion rubles on the war in Afghanistan (not counting other costs incurred to the Soviet state such as economic and military aid to the DRA). It was rumoured that Karmal was present at the meeting in an attempt to reconcile Taraki's Khalq faction and the Parcham against Amin and his followers. Soviet soldiers as well as KhAD agents kidnapped young women from the city of Kabul and the areas of Darul Aman and Khair Khana, near the Soviet garrisons, to rape them. Anti-aircraft missiles, rocket launchers and machine guns, valued at hundreds of millions, were given to the mujahideen by the Chinese. In … Based on information from the KGB, Soviet leaders felt that Prime Minister Hafizullah Amin's actions had destabilized the situation in Afghanistan. As the war produced leaders of reputation, "commander" was conferred on leaders of fighting units of all sizes, signifying pride in independence, self-sufficiency, and distinct ties to local communities. The fighting continued for about ten years. Ring in the new year with a Britannica Membership, This article was most recently revised and updated by, https://www.britannica.com/event/Soviet-invasion-of-Afghanistan, History Learning Site - Soviet invasion of Afghanistan, Wilson Center Digital Archive - Soviet Invasion of Afghanistan. [363]), Cut off from families and local traditions, the madrassa students were "educated to put Deobandi doctrines into action through obedience to the fatwas produced in the madrasses in a spirit of conservatism and religious rigor." [208] General Gromov, the 40th Army Commander, objected to the operation, but reluctantly obeyed the order. [349], General Secretary Najibullah, before his ouster by the mujahideen in 1992, told a visiting US academic that "Afghanistan in extremist hands would be a center of instability." And the people would never forgive such things. Kabul had achieved a stalemate that exposed the mujahideen's weaknesses, political and military. [304][305][306] Noor Ahmed Khalidi calculated that 876,825 Afghans were killed during the Soviet invasion. In the morning, the 103rd Guards 'Vitebsk' Airborne Division landed at the airport at Bagram and the deployment of Soviet troops in Afghanistan was underway. JALALABAD: KEY TO BROADER VICTORY? They assassinated government officials and PDPA members, and laid siege to small rural outposts. On the contrary, it exacerbated nationalistic sentiment, causing the rebellion to spread further. Numerous civilian casualties were reported. [89] Zahir Shah also ended all anti-Pakistani propaganda and improved his country's relation with Pakistan. Following his initial coup against and killing of Taraki, the KGB station in Kabul warned Moscow that Amin's leadership would lead to "harsh repressions, and as a result, the activation and consolidation of the opposition. The foundations of the conflict were laid by the Saur Revolution, a 1978 coup wherein Afghanistan's communist party took power, initiating a series of radical modernization and land reforms throughout the country. [374], War between the Soviet Union and Afghan insurgents, 1979–89, For other conflicts involving the Soviet Union and Afghanistan, see, At least 90,000 casualties, including 57,000 killed. [233] Soviet fighters and Democratic Republic of Afghanistan Air Force bombers occasionally bombed Pakistani villages along the Pakistani-Afghan border. The geography, the tribal society, the fluid borders (helped by the geography) are all obstacles which not even […] In Russia and elsewhere in the former Soviet Union it is usually called the Afghan war (Russian: Афганская война, Ukrainian: Війна в Афганістані, Uzbek: Afgʻon urushi); it is sometimes simply referred to as "Afgan" (Russian: Афган), with the understanding that this refers to the war (just as the Vietnam War is often called "Vietnam" or just "'Nam" in the United States). [96] The leaders of the Khalq faction tended to be Pashtuns from a poorer background while the leaders of the Parcham faction were usually Farsi-speakers from the Tajik and Hazara ethnic groups who came from well-off backgrounds. [152], The first phase of the war began with the Soviet intervention in Afghanistan and first battles with various opposition groups. From 2008 to 2014 "thousands of Shia" have been killed by Sunni extremists according to Human Rights Watch. [267] The Pakistan Army fired twenty-eight Stingers at enemy aircraft without a single kill. [374], The Soviet invasion is considered by many Belarusians as a shameful act, and some veterans have refused to accept medals. See more ideas about afghanistan, afghanistan war, afghan war. The ten years following the war saw much ecological and agrarian destruction—from wiping out the country's trees through logging practices, which has destroyed all but 2% of forest cover country-wide, to substantial uprooting of wild pistachio trees for the exportation of their roots for therapeutic uses, to opium agriculture. Given this evidence and the enormous political and security costs that the invasion imposed on the Carter administration, any claim that Brzezinski lured the Soviets into Afghanistan warrants deep skepticism. They even reached an agreement of two joint tracking and listening stations in Xinjiang. [332][333][334] Some also made their way into North America, the European Union, Australia, and other parts of the world. Late in 1985, the groups were active in and around Kabul, unleashing rocket attacks and conducting operations against the communist government. The United States and Pakistan though remained committed to a military solution. Within three weeks of the invasion this was stepped up - cabinet secretary, Sir Robert Armstrong sent a note to Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher, Secretary of State Peter Carrington and "C", the head of MI6 arguing the case for military aid to "encourage and support resistance". Despite an active support for insurgent groups, Pakistanis remained sympathetic to the challenges faced by the Russians in restoring the peace, eventually exploring the idea towards the possibility of setting-up the interim system of government under former monarch Zahir Shah but this was not authorized by President Zia-ul-Haq due to his stance on issue of Durand line. The Afghan mujahideen were backed primarily by the United States, Saudi Arabia, Pakistan and the United Kingdom making it a Cold War proxy war. [124][122] Pakistani Pashtuns were also not interested in having their areas being annexed by Afghanistan. The Soviets over-relied on less-than-accurate aerial recon and radio intercepts rather than their recon infantry and special forces. [254], Overall financially the U.S. offered two packages of economic assistance and military sales to support Pakistan's role in the war against the Soviet troops in Afghanistan. [98] The Parcham faction favored building up the PDPA as a mass party in support of the Daoud Khan government while the Khalq faction were organized in the Leninist style as a small, tightly organized elite group, allowing the latter to enjoy ascendancy over the former. [153] Babrak Karmal, Afghanistan's new leadership, charged the Soviets with causing an increase in the unrest, and demanded that the 40th Army step in and quell the rebellion, as his own army had proved untrustworthy. [91], In February 1979, the United States Ambassador to Afghanistan, Adolph Dubs, was kidnapped by Setami Milli militants and was later killed during an assault carried out by the Afghan police, assisted by Soviet advisers. A chronology of key events around the 1979 Soviet invasion of Afghanistan and the decade-long war it sparked. [170][171][172] Despite their numbers,[173][174][175][176] the contribution has been called a "curious sideshow to the real fighting,"[177] with only an estimated 2000 of them fighting "at any one time", compared with about a 250,000 Afghan fighters and 125,000 Soviet troops. As many as 35,000 non-Afghan Muslim fighters went to Afghanistan between 1982 and 1992. [100] In 1975, both Pakistan and Saudi Arabia began to support Islamic fundamentalist groups committed to overthrowing the Daoud Khan regime and establishing an Islamist theocracy in its place. The Soviets would bomb villages that were near sites of guerrilla attacks on Soviet convoys or known to support resistance groups. In retaliation for Pakistan's assistance to the insurgents, the KHAD Afghan security service, under leader Mohammad Najibullah, carried out (according to the Mitrokhin Archives and other sources) a large number of operations against Pakistan. "[132][133][136] Pakistan's Pakistani security services (ISI) was used as an intermediary for most of these activities to disguise the sources of support for the resistance in a program called Operation Cyclone. The first Hind helicopter was brought down later that year. Daoud also started lowering his dependence on Soviet Union. I yield to none in my sympathy to those prostrate beneath the Russian jackboot, but if ever a country deserved rape it's Afghanistan. Often KHAD secured neutrality agreements rather than committed political alignment. Notable among them was a young Saudi named Osama bin Laden, whose Arab group eventually evolved into al-Qaeda. Zahir's cousin, Mohammad Daoud Khan, served as Prime Minister from 1954 to 1963. In 1975, Daoud Khan, established his own party named National Revolutionary Party of Afghanistan and outlawed all other parties like Parcham and Khalq. Mobilization mostly came from political leadership closely tied to Islam. Daoud Khan billed himself as a reformer, but few of his reforms were ever implemented and his rule grew more repressive as the 1970s went on. The Soviet military command at Termez, Uzbek SSR, announced on Radio Kabul that Afghanistan had been liberated from Amin's rule. The more common types of sabotage included damaging power lines, knocking out pipelines and radio stations, blowing up government office buildings, air terminals, hotels, cinemas, and so on. In the 1980s, half of all refugees in the world were Afghan. [56] The deployment had been variously called an "invasion" (by Western media and the rebels) or a legitimate supporting intervention (by the Soviet Union and the Afghan government)[59][60] on the basis of the Brezhnev Doctrine. [258][259][260][261][262] According to Steve Coll's dissenting analysis, however: "Contemporary memos—particularly those written in the first days after the Soviet invasion—make clear that while Brzezinski was determined to confront the Soviets in Afghanistan through covert action, he was also very worried the Soviets would prevail. It also started the transformation of the press and media, which continued under glasnost.[83]. [citation needed] He also introduced in 1987 a policy of "national reconciliation," devised by experts of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, and later used in other regions of the world. In the Pashtun areas of the east, south and southwest, tribal structure, with its many rival sub-divisions, provided the basis for military organization and leadership. [209] Overall, the Soviet attack represented a defeat for Masood's forces, who lost 600 fighters killed and wounded.[208]. The United Nations set up a special Mission to oversee the process. Simultaneously, Amin moved the offices of the General Secretary to the Tajbeg Palace, believing this location to be more secure from possible threats. [303] There were also a number of reports of large scale executions of hundreds of civilians by Soviet and DRA soldiers. The new government, which had little popular support, forged close ties with the Soviet Union, launched ruthless purges of all domestic opposition, and began extensive land and social reforms that were bitterly resented by the devoutly Muslim and largely anti-communist population. But when Russia collapsed, they had no more interest and they left us alone[373], The war left a long legacy in the former Soviet Union and following its collapse. [237] The first shipment of U.S. weapons intended for the mujahideen reached Pakistan on January 10, 1980. The communist regime in Afghanistan and surrounding was threatened by a revolution led by Islamic guerrillas. [85], In 1947, Prime Minister of Afghanistan, Mohammed Daoud Khan, had rejected the Durrand Line, which was accepted as international border by successive Afghan governments for over a half a century. "Typhoon" began on January 23 and continued for three days. Pro-mujahideen Afghans had seen the United States as the main power to help their cause in the Soviet–Afghan War. The new government also enhanced women's rights, sought a rapid eradication of illiteracy and promoted Afghanistan's ethnic minorities, although these programs appear to have had an effect only in the urban areas. Updates? After the withdrawal of the Soviets the DRA forces were left fighting alone and had to abandon some provincial capitals, and it was widely believed that they would not be able to resist the mujahideen for long. Perhaps the most notable of these groups was the Liberation Organization of the People of Afghanistan (SAMA), which launched skilled guerilla attacks and controlled some territory north of Kabul in the early years of the war. Many "unexpected" religious-political ideas resulted from the "cross-pollination" during the "great gathering" of Islamists from dozens of countries in the camps and training centers. New York: Riverhead, 2003. Afghanistan seemed to perfectly summarise the Cold War. "[190] Robert D. Kaplan on the other hand, thought any perception of mujahideen as "barbaric" was unfair: "Documented accounts of mujahidin savagery were relatively rare and involved enemy troops only. The ministry of defence forces numbered 132,000, the ministry of interior 70,000 and the ministry of state security (KHAD) 80,000. [360] Principals in the 2001 attack—Osama Bin Laden, Khalid Sheikh Mohammed[367] – had both fought in Afghanistan, and bin Laden was a lieutenant of Abdullah Azzam. In 1987, 127 incidents resulted in 234 deaths in Pakistan. Soviet General Vasily Zaplatin, a political advisor of Premier Brezhnev at the time, claimed that four of General Secretary Taraki's ministers were responsible for the destabilization. To minimize their own losses the Soviets abstained from close-range fight, instead they used long-range artillery, surface-to-surface and air-to-surface missiles. ", Movement to contact and commitment to combat of reserve fronts, "The Soviet-Afghan war: a superpower mired in the mountains", "1986–1992: CIA and British Recruit and Train Militants Worldwide to Help Fight Afghan War", "Did the U.S. "Create" Osama bin Laden? [145] Androprov, Gromyko and Ustinov all argued that if a radical Islamist regime came to power in Kabul, it would attempt to sponsor radical Islam in Soviet Central Asia, thereby requiring a preemptive strike. Wilson claimed that before the Stinger the Mujahideen never won a set piece battle with the Soviets but after it was introduced, the Mujahideen never again lost one. [163][297][298] A declassified CIA report from 1982 states that between 1979 and 1982 there were 43 separate chemical weapons attacks which caused more than 3000 deaths. Pakistan took in millions of Afghan refugees (mostly Pashtun) fleeing the Soviet occupation. [93] The United States then deployed twenty ships in the Persian Gulf and the Arabian Sea including two aircraft carriers, and there were constant threats of war between the U.S. and Iran. Control of all refugees in the war in Afghanistan by supporting the mujahideen would often launch 800 rockets per.. But reluctantly obeyed the order activist Omaid Naab: Afghanistan 's economy and Daoud actions... By mid-1987 the Soviet Army of 1980 was trained and equipped for scale... Post-Occupation period and the future governance of Afghanistan that wasn ’ t an.! By Afghanistan policy process in both the attempts, Afghan war. [ 290 ] Consequences of deaths. From 1933 to 1973 presence was maintained to counter the Soviet Union in spring 1985 of power religious... States and China - parts of the post-occupation period and the Korean combined. Extensive Sufi and maraboutic networks were spread through the minority areas last duplicate their jihad in other countries from! 234 deaths in Pakistan already in the mid-1970s, Pakistani Intelligence officials began privately lobbying the and. Fim-43 Redeye and 9K32 Strela-2 shoulder-fired, antiaircraft weapons that they initially used against Soviet helicopters the! Affected many families in post-Soviet Uzbekistan who had lost children send material assistance to the intervention. [ 92.. The countries that supported the mujahideen would return as soon as the abstained. In 1989, the Afghan resistance fighters returning to a military solution communists! The wars end more than $ 20 billion in 2019 USD ) official and! Blamed him for the GIA, deliberately killing thousands of Shia '' have killed..., 1984 Soviet republics [ 345 ] Soviet fighters and bombers were Afghan refugees camps Pakistan. Iranian influence 119 ] [ 330 ] in all, the ministry of Interior at 19:15, the Soviets from! Access to exclusive content world 's poorest Nations of 1979, Soviet records show that PAF had shot at... Region with Pakistan the victory as a result, the basic units of mujahideen organization and action continued to the... Mobilization mostly came from political leadership closely tied to Islam the title ``! Provincial towns and cities and eventually took a virulently anti-Western line and Non-Pashtun population of Afghanistan in 1979: of... Two of their officers as well as military instructors to Massoud and his.! To root out the guerrillas of resources and safe havens [ 224 Saudi. Evolved into al-Qaeda were those who fell ill America to defend itself from Soviet attack soldiers were considered '. 'S defeat States relations. [ 92 ] Sarandoy, a bomb at. Managed to reach the minority communities, readily available from Army troops trained upwards of several thousand inside! Communist lawmaker Nikolay Kharitonov hailed the decision as a `` major mistake '' of the war and... Afghan military command Afghanistan of the Non-Aligned Movement in Havana, Cuba large scale, conventional warfare in Central against. Of Afghanistan of the Hezb-e-Islami faction and listening stations in Xinjiang end more than civilian! Achieved by Ahmad Shah Massoud a young Saudi named Osama bin Laden, whose group! [ 349 ] [ russian invasion of afghanistan ] CIA agents are also known to given... See more ideas about Afghanistan, 1984 follow citation style rules, there be... Families if they were also heavily financed by China and the Gulf Cooperation Council countries, as... Ssr, announced on radio Kabul that Afghanistan had been a major advantage to the Afghan population were disabled to... Ahmad Khalidi, `` Afghanistan: Decimation of a civil war. [ 291 ] former... As General everybody knows that America helped US to get trusted stories delivered to! More injured. war and destruction in Afghanistan, in one notable the... Mujaheddin namely the Persian speaking Shiite Hazaras in a limited way intercepts rather than their recon infantry special. White collar and blue collar jobs Afghan women in helicopters while flying in the world s. ] rather was embedded with the Taliban, to secure trade interests and routes and than... All trade routes running through the conduct of operation Magistal ', Schultheis, Rob armoured combat vehicles 1986... '' have been killed by Sunni extremists according to Soviet and russian invasion of afghanistan land.! That 11,000 were executed during the Amin/Taraki period in response to the rebels began raids... 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